A group of weight-loss surgeries in which changes are made to the digestive system, some of which are non-reversible. The idea behind these types of surgeries is to help the patient lose weight by limiting the amount of food they can consume/digest at any one time. Bariatric surgeries should only ever be the final option when diet and exercise have proved inadequate and there are now serious health concerns caused by a person's weight.
The three most common types of Bariatric Surgeries are as follows:
1. Gastric Sleeve - The most common surgery, in which the stomach is irreversibly reduced to about 15% of its original capacity by surgically removing a large portion of it, resulting in a sleeve or tube-like structure.
2. Gastric Bypass - A more complicated procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts; a small upper pouch and a large lower ‘remnant’ pouch. The small intestine is rearranged accordingly, bypassing the large pouch and thus significantly reducing the volume of the stomach.
3. Gastric Band - An inflatable silicone device is fitted around the top portion of the stomach to create a smaller stomach pouch. The device can be removed when the patient reaches their desired weight.
Alternatively, there is a non-surgical Bariatric procedure, known as the Gastric Balloon. This involves an inflatable device being temporarily inserted into the stomach via endoscopic placement. The balloon or balloons obstruct a sizable area of the stomach, thus reducing the amount of food it can contain at any one time and thus leading to eventual weight loss. The balloons are usually removed after 6 or 12 months.
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Gastric sleeve is a simple procedure. Laparoscopically we access the abdominal area (keyhole surgery) and get about 80% of it by cutting the stomach along its length. After sleeve surgery, the food you eat enters and exits the stomach in the same place as before (unlike gastric bypass), but you have a much smaller stomach.
The sheath helps you lose weight in two ways. It reduces the capacity of your stomach and also changes the balance of hormones and proteins in the stomach. The change in intestinal hormones, including GLP1, alters and reduces appetite. Therefore, we expect patients with hives to lose weight quickly.
It is important to note that your weight loss is not directly related to the size of your remaining stomach. The change in bowel hormones will ease weight loss, whether you have a relatively “tight” or “loose” sleeve.
Obesity is the accumulation of excess and abnormal fat that is detrimental to your health as the amount of calories you ingest is higher than your calorie intake. Obesity, which is known as fatness among the people, which decreases the quality of life significantly and shortens the life span, is a growing health problem of our age. 1.6 billion people in the world are overweight and 400 million of them are obese. According to the researchs, one in four men in Turkey (25%) and almost half of women (44%) is seen obesity. In addition to being widespread, it continues to be an important public health problem as it increases and causes many diseases. In other words, obesity is not a common aesthetic problem, on the contrary it is an important disease that can cause high blood pressure, heart failure, fatal vascular diseases and psychological problems if it left untreated.
Other diseases that obesity can cause:
Type 2 diabetes
Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Heart failure
Metabolic syndrome, Insulin resistance, Cholesterol and lipid elevation
Menstrual irregularities, Infertility, Birth difficulties, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Overhairing
Sleep apnea, Sleep disorders
Depression, Social mismatch
Stroke and stroke
Some cancers such as breast, large intestine and prostate cancer (obesity operations are reported to reduce deaths due to various cancers in the long term)
WHO IS ASSESSED AS OBESE?
The Body Mass Index (KMI) is the most commonly used measurement method for determining obesity and is recommended by the WHO (World Health Organization). The BMI is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the square of the height in square meters.
Body mass index valueclassification Below 18.5 kg / m² Weak18.5 – 24.9 kg / m² Normal weight25 to 29.9 kg / m² OverweightWeight of 30 to 39.9 kg / m²ObeseBetween 40 – 50 kg / m² Morbid obeseBetween 50 – 60 kg / m² Super ObeseOver 60 kg / m² Super super obese
Morbid obesity is a deadly disease that needs to be treated. The mean life expectancy of patients with pathological obesity surgery is increased by 15 years. Who is suitable for obesity surgery?
Diet: Patients who are scheduled for surgical treatment should not have hormonal problems. They are patients who cannot lose or regain weight with diet, exercise and medication. These patients should have had obesity for at least 3 years, and should have failed twice within at least 6 months despite nutritional exercise and psychological support. Although these patients have a 2-4% chance of losing weight through diet and exercise, they must be tried first.
Age: The patient should be between 18-65 years old. This age restriction may include exceptions to patient performance and other illnesses.
Body Mass Index: The body mass index should be over 40 or between 35 and 40 and have no other diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, joint diseases, reflux diseases, etc.). The World Health Organization recommends that the surgery be the most effective treatment for obesity and comorbidities in patients with multiple conditions and a BMI> 35 kg / m2 or in patients with a BMI> 40 kg / m2, even if there is no adverse event. The American Diabetes Association and the International Diabetes Federation report that obesity surgery is better than any other treatment for type 2 patients who have uncontrolled blood sugar levels and a body mass index higher than 35 kg / m2.
Addiction and psychiatric disorder: The patient who can undergo obesity surgery should not have alcohol or drug addiction, and the person’s psychology should be able to accept the risks of the surgery and the post-surgery process.
Pregnancy and childbirth: It is recommended not to become pregnant 24 months after an obesity surgery.
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